CAST experiment (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) is searching for the existence of solar axions. It utilizes a superconducting magnet, 10 m long and with a 9 Tesla magnetic field. Solar axions passing through the magnetic field is possible to be transformed into photons which could be detected by proper photon detectors. CAST has already improved the experimental limits by a factor of 10 and derived a limit better than the one resulting from astrophysical considerations. CAST will continue measuring up to the year 2010.
The applications of Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics and mainly on the study of supernova and neutron stars are widely and very important. Open problems still remain on the above research. The problems concern a) the construction of the equation of state of nuclear matter up to very high values of the baryon density b) the study of pairing correlations and the superconductivity and superfluidity phenomenon on nuclear matter and c) the neutrino emission process of supernova and hot neutron stars.
Environmental Radioactivity: Atmospheric, Aquatic and Marine, Terrestrial. NORM: Naturally occurring radioactive materials: Uranium-238, Radium-226, Thorium-232, Potassium-40. Radon: Indoors, Outdoors, in Dwellings, in Caves. Radon: A precursor in earthquake prediction studies. Radioactive Aerosols. Radioactivity of Cosmic-ray origin: Beryllium-7, Sodium-22, Sulphur-35, Phosphorus-32, Phosphorus-33 Radioactivity in Karstic fields and Natural springs. TENORM: Technologically enhanced occurring radioactive materials. Radioactive fallout from nuclear reactor accidents: The case of Chernobyl accident. Radioactivity associated with the operation of Coal-fired power plants (CPP) Radioactivity associated with the operation of Phosphate ore processing plants (Phosphate Industries). Radioactivity of building materials. Radioecology: Radio-bio-indicators.
The nuclear structure study of finite nuclei is a fundamental activity in Theoretical Nuclear Physics. The mean field theory describes well the nuclear structure but experimental studies indicate that short-range correlations effects, between nucleons, must be taken into account. The study of the effect of short-range correlations is achieved by applying the many-body density matrix formalism. In general, the calculation of the density matrices, in Nuclear Physics, is very hard and complicated. The density-matrix can be evaluated by applying approximated methods. The knowledge of the many-body density matrices leads to the evaluation of the most important quantities of nuclear structure as the nuclear energy, the density and momentum distribution, the form factors, the quadrupole moments e.t.c.
The experiments concern to Nuclear Waste Transmutation of 237Np, 239Pu, 129I, 241Am, by using spallation sources of different design. Spectral measurements as well as spatial neutron and proton distributions at the source surface are performed in order to study the more efficient set up for transmutation. The experiments take place at the High Energy Lab. in Dubna, Russia, in the frame of the collaboration with European and ex-Soviet Union groups.
Research and development of a PET system. Positron Annihilation in matter. Doppler broadening of the annihilation line (2 gamma annihilation). 3 gamma Ps annihilation. Positron lifetime in metals, amorphous alloys, semiconductors, high Tc superconductors.
A. APPLICATIONS OF INFORMATION AND COMPLEXITY THEORIES IN CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SYSTEMS. Information-theoretic applications in atomic nuclei, atomic clusters, atoms and correlated atoms in a trap. Development of models needed for those applications e.g. nuclear models, models for the atom e.t.c. Important results so far : A universal property for the information entropy. Quantitative measures for the complexity and self-organization of atoms and other quantum systems. Various practical interdisciplinary applications e.g. in EEG, aesthetics, politics, economics , biology e.t.c.
B. QUANTUM COMPUTERS. Theoretical research in methods of implementation of quantum computers. Quantum control theory.
The interaction of primary cosmic ray particles with the atmosphere generates a variety of secondary particles (muons, gammas, neutrons, neutrinos...) some of which reach the surface of the Earth and they can be measured by ground based detectors. The interaction of very high energy cosmic rays with the atmosphere generates Extensive Atmospheric Showers (EAS) of secondaries. The study of EAS is on the research front and it is performed by a world-wide network of cosmic ray detectors.
The High Energy Physics group of the AUTH which participates in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has been constructed and tested part of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The group has developed the methodology for detector construction in laboratorial installations of international specifications and allocates the essential experimental setup and software for the control of operation of detectors with comic rays. It also developed a test node of GRID technology for the analysis, distribution and storage of data. The group is developing data analysis methods and the essential software for the study of interactions of elementary particles in the ATLAS experiment.
TL and OSL are two basic physical effects, which allow the investigation of long lived energy levels within the band gap of insulating crystals. Furthermore, they have widespread applications in radiation protection dosimetry and archaeometry for dating and authenticity tests.