· Spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric processes. Mechanisms of emission and removal of atmospheric constituents. Life time.
· Global circles of atmospheric constituents that contain sulphur, nitrogen, halogen and carbon.
· Introduction to the ozone layer. Mechanisms of ozone production and destruction. Dynamics of the ozone layer.
· Depletion of the ozone layer. Periodic changes. Long-term trends.
· Global changes of atmospheric transmission due to aerosols. Size distribution of particles. Classification of Particles.
· Aerosol optical properties. Phase function. Aerosol effects on surface albedo.
· Emission of radiation from the Sun. Solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere (spectral characteristics and temporal changes).
· Factors that affect the transition of the solar radiation through the atmosphere. Spatial and temporal changes of solar radiation reaching the ground.
· Chemical and photochemical processes in the atmosphere. Photolysis rate of atmospheric molecules (calculation and measurement). Biological effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (calculation of the absorbed dose, measurements).
· Emission and propagation of the earth’s radiation through the atmosphere. Calculation of the absorbed and transmitted radiation flux.
· Climate change. The Earth’s energy balance. Natural and anthropogenic greenhouse effect.
· Solar flux changes and climate forcing. Anthropogenic changes of radiation effective atmospheric constituents and effects on radiation fluxes.
· Solar activity and effects on the atmosphere and the Earth’s climate.