· Origin, composition, and physical properties of air. Quantities of atmospheric constituents in the atmosphere. Equilibrium in the composition of atmospheric constituents. Escape of gases to space.
· Atmospheric thermodynamics. Gas laws. Variation of density and pressure with altitude. Hydrostatic equation.
· Simple atmospheric models. Adiabatic processes. Pressure scale height. The hydrostatic equation for different gases. Separation of atmospheric gases. Atmospheric layers.
· Nature and characteristics of the radiation from the Sun, the earth and the atmosphere. Radiometric quantities. Application of black body laws. Emission of radiation from a real body. Effective temperature.
· Basics of the transfer of monochromatic radiation through the atmosphere (absorption –scattering). Optical depth. Variation of radiation absorption with height. Chapman’s theory.
· Equilibrium between solar – terrestrial radiation. The greenhouse effect.
· The equation of motion. Forces in a rotating coordinate system. Pressure gradient force. Apparent forces.
· Geostrophic wind. Thermal wind. General circulation
· Energy equation. Continuity equation. Vertical wind.
· Atmospheric waves. Vorticity. Orographic waves. Rossby waves.
· Air pollution scales. Photochemical pollution of urban areas: causes, characteristics, impacts.
· Regional scale pollution – acid deposition: Introduction. Physicochemical processes of regional pollution. Impacts on forests and agriculture, water ecosystems and buildings. Large-scale transport of air pollution in Europe.
· Climate change: Emissions of greenhouse gases. The impact of suspended particulate matter. Future projections. International treaties.