· Theoretical background for the laboratory exercises: Radiometry, Ozone sounding, and Meteorology.
· Introduction to the measurements of environmental parameters. Representativeness of a measurement. Quality control - quality assurance.
· Measurements of meteorological parameters 1: Temperature. Reference points and temperatures scales. Meteorological thermometers. Sources of errors in temperature measurements.
· Measurements of meteorological parameters 2: Humidity, Pressure. Parameters of humidity determination. Psychrometers and hair hygrometers. Spectroscopic hygrometers. Operational principles of other hygrometers. Pressure units. Characteristics and operational principles of barometers.
· Measurements of meteorological parameters 3: Wind. Scales and units. Characteristics and operational principles of anemometers. Wind-vanes. Calculation of the wind vertical distribution.
· Radiation measurements: Introduction to measurement methods and quantities. Spectral response of radiation instruments. Geometry of measurements – Radiation flux and intensity. Angular response error.
· Spectrophotometers 1: Description, characteristics, the grating equation, spectral resolution, stray (scattered) light error.
· Spectrophotometers 2: Absolute calibration and determination of the wavelength scale. Applications.
· Broadband radiometers: Determination of spectral response function. Calibration with standard lamps and prototype instruments. Errors due to instrument’s internal temperature variability.
· Remote sensing of the column number density of atmospheric species from the ground and satellites: Differential optical absorption spectroscopy method, Brewer-Dobson method.
· Atmospheric remote sensing using lasers (LIDAR)
· In situ measurements of atmospheric species vertical profiles.
· In situ measurements of air quality: Atmospheric pollutants NOx, SO2, O3, CO, hydrocarbons, aerosols.